Tuesday, 24 May 2011

Back to Africa- individuals

These are some of the individuals from the run.

(There is likely a lot of small component noise here, and also between NMPC, WMPC, EMPC due to their high similarity and small number of European individuals included)
Although African-Americans appear to present some variability in their African elements, their African ancestry can probably be best described as the product of a New World melting pot of originally Niger-Congo-speaking, West African ethnic groups. Affinity seems to be higher with ethnic groups from the Gulf of Guinea region, and the more Northern Bantu-speaking groups.
Their non-SubSaharan African ancestry is mostly composed of elements found in Europe as expected. There is very little East African ("Nilo-Saharan").
As for the Fulani it seems they have been somewhat isolated genetically from neighbouring populations, even though they live nearby non-Fulani peoples across a vast swath of the Sahel/West Africa region. Only a few individuals appear to be recently admixed to any degree. High levels of the Northwest African element, their general lack of any NCongo components except for NCongo1, together with NCongo1 being particularly high in presumably more isolated Sahel populations such as the Dogon all point to an ancient ethnogenesis for this group, perhaps in the (last) Green Sahara itself at the time of the West Asian Neolithic colonization of North Africa.

Bear in mind this run attempted to distinguish very closely related components and a high amount of "noise" is likely at the individual level.
Also Fertile Crescent components (FC) are being based in a small sample since this was about Africa. So NMPC here is different from my previous run, since it is based on the Lithuanians who have much more WMPC (Basques) than the Chuvash. EMPC was based on the Urkarah. So they don't have the same exact distributions as before.

Niger-Congo components are also very close and shouldn't be taken as exact at the individual level. "Nilo-Saharan" is not very distant from the NCongo components either, some people postulate a common origin for the language families, and thus perhaps some genetic similarity is expected. Indeed if both Neolithic expansions are related and come from the "southern shore" of the Sahara, most modern African populations may have derived from demographic and linguistical expansion, from the whereabouts of the desert only a few thousand of years ago, probably in association with a Neolithic Revolution associated with the Green Sahara.

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